A 45 year old client at a health care facility is being treated for a spinal disorder. For the time being, physicians are not contempling spinal surgery. The client has been on a course of non-opioid medications to combat pain but keeps complaining about no relief from the pain. The nurse assesses for common nonverbal indicators of pain. A routine pain assessement shows chronic pain in the client. Overwhelmed with helplessness, the client breaks down one day in the presence of the nurse who is completing an assessment on the client.
a. What measures should the nurse take to ensure an accurate assessment of pain in the client?
b. What changes should the nurse expect in the client’s plan of care if the non-opioids do not alleviate pain in the client?