Help me study for my Biology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.
PART 1: Submit your AP Draft 1
Upload your paper to the discussion board below (2,000 words minimum).
Your draft must be an MS Word file.
To post your paper, click “Reply” below and then click “Attach” in the bottom left corner (below the text box).
Your draft is due by 11:59 p.m. on Sunday, February 23.
Part 2: PEER REVIEW (We’ll go over this in class on the Monday of Week 8):
Everyone will provide feedback on two of their colleagues’ drafts, and everyone will receive feedback from two classmates on their own draft. Plan to spend thirty-five minutes per paper. I recommend setting a timer. Don’t forget to save your work!
- Balance praise and constructive criticism.
- Don’t be skimpy — write out full sentences and ask questions.
- Your job is comprehension, not evaluation: have a conversation with the text, asking questions as you read.
- Do not comment on grammar, typos, or spelling errors.
- Do not line edit within the text or make any changes to the text. Your feedback should be in the form of marginal and summary comments only.
- Your job as a reader is to help the writer understand how their writing is being received by their audience.
Techniques to Help You Bridge the CP and AP
AGWR Chapter 9 (pages 243-244)
As you develop your AP and its arguments, keep in mind that you are seek-ing your audience’s cooperation. Your audience may be composed of groups or individuals with a range of values and concerns related to the problem and the various and possible solutions. If you take on multiple perspectives when explaining the problem and analyzing various solutions, you will likely succeed in persuading your audience to follow you through your argument, to keep reading, and to consider your arguments seriously. You will probably need to employ a number of argumentative strategies to become a convincing advocate. Your CP should provide you with a steady foundation on which to stand as you repurpose the knowledge you’ve gained for the different argumentative purposes of the AP. Here are a few techniques you might use to bridge the CP and the AP.
What are the root causes of the problem? Some problems will lend themselves to this type of argument, some will not. Nevertheless, a robust discussion of possible solutions to most of the problems you will be able to address will have to involve analysis of causes and effects of possible solutions.
Research Direction: If while researching for contexts, you found persuasive evidence of particular causes of your problem, research to find further evidence that directly addresses that cause.
Do the potential solutions discussed by scholars and experts satisfactorily address the problem for a significant number of those most affected by the problem? How comprehensive are the proposed solutions in addressing the scope of the problem? Research Direction: To support a coverage analysis, you will need to show how many people, or what groups of people, will be affected or have been affected historically; for example, you might present demographic data or studies that quantify the effects of the problem and solution on different groups of people.
Do the solutions debated by scholars and experts exceed the costs?
Research Direction: To support a cost/benefit analysis, you will need to detail how much a potential solution or solutions may cost to implement, what benefits will result, and how long it will take for benefits to be seen. You will also need to consider what other solutions have been tried in the past and then document and analyze the results. Although this will often take the form of an analysis of financial costs and benefits, other factors—like human well-being—can also be used. For federal policy proposals, the Congressional Budget Office, for example, may have budget estimates available; some think tanks may also have this information.
Are the solutions being debated feasible? Is one or another easy enough to implement without significant negative consequences for other social interests? Does a particular solution have enough support from significant parties to make it likely to be accepted by stakeholders, interested parties, and others in positions to take real action?
Research Direction: To support a feasibility analysis, you will need to present evidence to show that implementation of a particular solution or solutions is feasible in terms of money, time, and support. You will want to offer historical comparisons that tie such feasibility claims to past failures or partial successes. You may also need to show that there is enough political or popular will to support a given solution and/or demonstrate that implementation would not be overly difficult or expensive. You might present budget data, public opinion polls, or politicians’ statements and voting records on similar proposals.
Comparison is usually a type of feasibility argument. To make a comparative argument, you ask, Have similar solutions worked well, not so well, or failed in another comparable context? Such a comparable context can also draw from the past, as you may have done already in your CP. Research Direction: To support a comparative analysis, you present evidence to show, for example, that a similar policy has worked before in a similar context (i.e., in another city, state, or country, or at some time in the past). In addition, you must show that the other context is comparable to the current circumstances. You may want to look at historical data or policy reviews, for example.