I’m trying to study for my History course and I need some help to understand this question.
Option A: I know some of you are interested in linguistics and the expansion of people outwards. In the chapter on India, we learn about the Aryo (Aryan) people, an Indo-European group whose periodic migrations brought the exchange of the Indo-European root language, horses, patriarchal systems, and iron technology to many regions, including India. If you pick this option, read a bit more about the Indo-Europeans using my links, then discuss the importance of these people and the consequences of their expansion.
Option B: SLO Assignment on the religious culture of India. After reading our text, visit the following web sites:
Read about the Rig Veda and browse through some (not all – just a small sample will do) of the hymns presented in this translation. What exactly is the Rig Veda? What can it tell us about the culture that eventually replaced the Harappan society? How would you describe the Aryans based on our cd text andthe Vedas? How does the religious imagery in these hymns compare to what we read about in Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and/or prehistoric religions (cave art/Venus period)? Remember to include any relevant information from our text book, podcasts, and websites.
Option C: SLO Assignment on Ancient China: During the period of the Seven Warring States at the end of the Zhou Dynasty [1027 – 256 BCE], China continued to prosper in spite of the intense fighting between the States. Various Chinese philosophers offered different solutions as to how to restore social and political order out of the chaos of the times. Using the information from our text, the quotes from Confucius, Lao-Tzu, and a Legalist scholar included at the end of this form, and your knowledge, write an entry in which you:
- Identify and discuss the views of the three major schools of philosophy (Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism) of an ideal people and society and how one might “construct” or achieve such an ideal.
- Explain how each major school of philosophy presented a different vision of the ideal ruler and person.
- Quote from Confucius: “Lead the people with governmental measures and regulate them with laws and punishment, and they will avoid wrongdoing but will have no sense of honor and shame. Lead them with virtue and regulate them by the rules of propriety, and they will have a sense of shame and, moreover, set themselves right.” [2:3] Chi K’ang asked Confucius about government, saying, “What do you think of killing the wicked and associating with the good?” Confucius replied, “In your government what is the need of killing? If you desire what is good, the people will be good. The character of a ruler is like wind and that of the people is like grass. In whatever direction the wind blows, the grass always bends.” [12:19] Confucius said, “If a ruler sets himself right, he will be followed without his command. If he does not set himself right, even his commands will not be obeyed.” [13:6] Excerpts from The Analects of Confucius. Don’t forget to repond to 2 of your peers.
- Lao-Tzu Quote: NOT exalting worth keeps the people from rivalry. Not prizing what is hard to procure keeps the people from theft. Not to show them what they may covet is the way to keep their minds from disorder. Therefore the Sage, when he governs, empties their minds and fills their bellies, weakens their inclinations and strengthens their bones. His constant object is to keep the people without knowledge and without desire, or to prevent those who have knowledge from daring to act. He practises inaction, and nothing remains ungoverned.
- He who respects the State as his own person is fit to govern it. He who loves the State as his own body is fit to be entrusted with it.In the highest antiquity, the people did not know that they had rulers. In the next age they loved and praised them. In the next, they feared them. In the next, they despised them.How cautious is the Sage, how sparing of his words! When his task is accomplished and affairs are prosperous, the people all say: “We have come to be as we are, naturally and of ourselves.”(http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/salt/salt08.htm, July 26th, 2015)Legalism Quote from Han Fei Tzu: When it comes to women, the wise ruler may enjoy them, but should not be drawn into their pleads or submit to their requests.When it comes to people who are close to him, he enjoys them, but is sure to hold them responsible for what they say, and prevent them from expressing unasked for opinions.When it comes to uncles, brothers, and chief vassals, he should punish them when their advice leads to failure, and promote them when their advice leads to success. He should not promote them erratically.When it comes to pleasures and the enjoyment of valuable goods, he should have a staff tha handles these things, and prohibit anyone from having the freedom to control them. Otherwise, ministers will be able to manipulate the sovereign by knowing his wants. When it comes to favors, he should grant them at his own will to use emergency resources and public storehouses, and benefit the people. A minister should never be allowed to give based on his personal favorites.When it comes to persuasions and discussions, he must observe and find out people who are considered skillful at something, and verify the lack of skill in those who are considered bad. He should always avoid letting ministers talk to each other about them.The wise ruler institutes posts, offices, ranks, and bounties in order to offer a guarantee to promote the worthy and encourage the excellent. …The sovereign promotes the worthy by examining their abilities, and gives them bounties based on what excellences they have. Thus, worthy people will not hide their abilities in their service to the sovereign, and the excellent people delight in career promotion. And so, aims and advantages are achieved.…Placing too much value on minor advantages will impede major advantages.(Han Fei Tzu, http://www.rodneyohebsion.com/han-fei-tzu.htm, July 26, 2015)