Study Guide for Botany Exam. Textbook is Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology 14th Edition
91 problems help for study guide please
1. Difference between leaf gap and a leaf trace?
2. A stem bundle and its associated leaf traces are called what?
3. What are vascular rays made of?
4. How do we define stem?
5. What is another name for opposite, or oppositely arranged?
6. How do we define stomata?
7. What do we call a leaf that lacks a petiole?
8. What appears within the interior of the protoderm?
9. What is the difference between a leaf and a leaflet (there are 2 differences)?
10. What do we call a climbing rose, or any plant that rests on other plants?
11. What is a tunica?
12. How do we define tracheid’s?
13. Where do we find bark?
14. What causes false annual rings?
15. What is the difference between sapwood and hardwood?
16. Would strawberries make good examples of a runner?
17. What does secondary tissue produce?
18. Where do we see the tiny bundle scars?
19. When the rings of the tree are wide, what does that tell us?
20. What do we call the arrangements of leaves on stems?
21. How do we define decussate?
22. Define eustele
23. Define protostele
24. What do we call a seed plant not enclosed in an ovary (fruit) ?
25. Rose have modified leaves that can be needle like, what do we call them?
26. What do we call the arc that lies between 2 nodes?
27. How do we describe a stipule?
28. How do we describe leaves that are alternate?
29. How do we know the plant is wood and not subaceous?
30. Can we identify a tree in the winter by its sstems and buds?
31. What do we call the small spots on a pear or apple?
32. What do we call the wood of woody dicot trees?
33. What is the difference between a bulb and a tuber?
34. What is the difference between a perennial plant and an annual plant?
35. What do we call a horizontally spreading stem that runs through the top of the soil and drops roots at the nodes?
36. How do we describe summerwood?
37. What type of hardwood is used for fine furniture and paneling?
38. What kind of wood do we use for home construction?
39. How do we describe tannins?
40. What is the simplest type of stele?
41. Small spine like rising from the bark or epidermis from a plant called?
42. There’s an intercalary meristem at the base of each internode, what does it contribute to?
43. List of plant, which has thickest cuticles. Hydrophytes, xerophytes, ect.
44. What causes different types of leaves?
45. What are leaves undivided into leaflets called?
46. Do hardwood and sap grow at the same rate?
47. What are the 2 parts of a leaf?
48. Where are the stomata found in a hydrophyte?
49. Define transpiration
50. What is the function of a trichome?
51. There’s an extra thickness to the epidermis that faces outwarded on a leaf, why, why is it thicker, the epidermis cells on the surface of the leaf are thicker at the top, why?
52. Define photosynthesis
53. Monocots and dicots, which is knitted and which is parallel?
54. There are 3 events that cause hormonal changes in plant cells in the spring, what are they?
55. How do we describe the rachis of a leaf?
56. What is the function of the cuticle?
57. When do plants dispose of waste, after respiration or during respiration.
58. What is the function of the major and minor veins?
59. When and where does guttation take place?
60. Variations in the structure of leaves are due to what?
61. In xerophytes, what 2 features serve to reduce water loss from leaves?
62. In maize’s and grasses, how distinctive are the spongy and palisade mesophyll layers?
63. How so we describe minor veins? Where the are and how they look?
64. When is there an increase in gas exchange in leaves?
65. Where do we find chlorenchyma cells in leaves?
66. In a normal leaf, where are the palisade and spongy mesophyll in the leaf found?
67. What are the outstanding structures in a leaf, in a transverse cut?
68. The epidermal cells accumulate waste in leaves, secretes it from glands from the surface, what are the structures involved in that structure?
69. As vascular tissue gets bigger, what does it change its function too? ( What do major veins do?)
70. Does fall coloration changes have isolated temperate zones or just deciduous trees exists?
71. Many plants given, which is succulent?
72. What is another word for the shedding of leaves?
73. What is a bundle sheath?
74. Where is a vascular bundle?
75. Why do leaves roll or fold?
76. Is the breakdown of chlorophyll directly related to the length of daylight?
77. Where do leaves attach the stems?
78. What is the function of xylem?
79. What is the function of collenchyma and sclerenchyma in large leaves? They usually run beneath epidermis of dicots.
80. Besides mechanical support, leaf panels conduct nutrients from the xylem to the epidermis, is this true or false?
81. What do we call the leaves of cactus?
82. What are thorns?
83. What is special about the cobra plant?
84. Do all leaves originate as primordial material in the buds?
85. What do we call a plant leaf that kind looks like an ice cream cone where only the ends are exposed only at the surface of the soil?
86. What are the petals of a poinsettia, specialized leaves at the base of the flower?
87. Modification from the outgrowth of the epidermis or cortex? Thing that roses have
88. List of plants, what plant is not an insect eating plant?
89. List of insect eating plants, location of where to find that unique plant to.
90. When you have a great big insect eating pitcher plant, do they get big enough to eat small mammals?
91. Compass plants they orientate their blades of their leaves parallel to the sun, so the leaves actually extend north and south, is this true?
Know the uses of woods
Describe 2 specialized leaves well. Decent explanation
Human ecological Relevance of leaves on page 121, matching of 11 words from this reading, type of plants and what it does.
Shape of the leaf, not the type of plant 7.4